Why Online Betting Beats Going Down to the Betting Shop

Why Online Betting Beats Going Down to the Betting Shop

Most people assumed that the internet would revolutionise the way we bet, just like the way it has revolutionized many other things in life. However, recent prevalence studies have proved that the number of people betting online is still not as popular as other forms of betting such as phone betting, going down the bookmaker and being at the track. So for those who haven’t quite worked out the benefits of wagering online instead of these alternatives, here 10 good reasons why you should be:

1) Free bets: Due to the amount of competition online, betting companies like to encourage you to join their service in the hope you form some sort of brand loyalty. To entice you they will regularly offer a free bet. This is normally in the form of a matched bet (You put in a certain amount and they will match that amount.) and will allow you to double your money, if not more. Around big betting events like the World Series and the Kentucky Derby these free bets usually quadruple, making them a very attractive incentive. When was the last time you walked into the betting shop and the lady behind the counter said; “Here, have $10 on us”. Most likely never!

2) Compare odds: There are many websites online that allow you compare odds on all sorts of bets from all manor of betting events. You will be amazed at how much odds can very from one bookmaker to another, and by using online odds comparison tools you can seek out the best odds. This kind of information is only available online, but is free to use. If you are sat in the bookmakers all day you will only get the odds available from that specific shop, which may be much shorter than they are elsewhere.

3) Special offers: Something that seems to becoming more and more popular online is special offers such as “money back specials”. This is something an online betting site will offer in advance of a sporting event to gain interest from bettors. This could be something like, if your horse falls or if your team loses on penalties you will get your stake back. This is something you will rarely see offered in a bookmaker on the high street or over a telephone bet.

4) Other betting options: If you know anything about betting then you will have heard of betting exchanges and spread betting companies. These new betting sectors have largely formed due to the popularity of the internet, allowing all sorts of betting variables, with the final result being just one of them. Although these fairly recent betting options have caused controversy in the industry and in certain sports, there is no denying that they are extremely popular and are here to stay.

5) Increased markets: Most bookies tend to offer the popular betting markets, such as horse racing, football, basketball, baseball. With online betting there are a huge selection of bets to choose from including foreign sports betting, political betting, novelty betting and much more. For example some betting websites will allow you to bet on something like the 2nd division of the German Handball league or Gaelic football matches in Ireland. To be able to bet on sports and events that don’t even occur in this country was unheard of until the internet made it possible. This can be hugely beneficial to bettors who follow all sorts of obscure leagues, sports or events.

6) Access to information: It doesn’t take a genius to work out that you can obtain all sorts of facts, figures, statistics, historical data from the internet. This can be accessed very quickly at little or no cost. It doesn’t matter how good the form guide writer is in your favorite paper, its never going to compete with the amount of data that is available online. There are all manor of forums, blogs and reports that can be easily accessed to assist you with your betting options.

7) Comfort: Why would you drag yourself all the way down to the bookmakers(that might be miles away), when you can relax in the comfort of your own home and make your bets. Bookmakers tend to be dreary places with Formica chairs, lackluster decor and normally a bunch of sorry faces all around. It makes much more sense to put the kettle on, open up your browser and check out the bets of the day.

8) Speed: Provided you have a reliable broadband connection, online betting is instant. No standing in line or possibly missing the start of the race or game. You merely need to locate your bet, select your options and place your stake. This can all be done in the time it takes your to write down your selection on your betting slip. Some may feel that phone betting is just as quick, but you normally have to wait 5 to 20 seconds to connect to a representative. Why wait, when you don’t have to?

9) Access from anywhere: Provided it is legal to bet in the jurisdiction you are in, then there is no reason why you can’t place a bet from anywhere in the world, provided you have a connection to the internet. You can transfer money, place bets, check your account wherever you are and whatever time, day or night. Most high street bookmakers close, early evening, with the odd few staying open late. The same goes for several telephone betting services, and just imagine the bill from your hotel when you have called in half a dozen bets.

10) In-race betting: there is new technology starting to become more and more available online that allows you to bet in running or throughout a game. This is highly sophisticated stuff that is changing the way we can bet quite dramatically. There is no way in the world that this could be made possible in betting shops or even on the telephone.

For some; going down the bookmakers is so habitual it is impossible to change, but for others it should now be clear that the advantages are clear. Increase your chances of winning more bets, play online!


Action games can take the player into surrealism and fantasy

New PC and video games are not only capable of providing fun and excitement for everyone, but they can also give certain benefits and advantages.

With the help of advanced technology and popularity, the gaming industry has advanced and expanded rapidly over the years.

If we are looking for categorization of videos games, they are broadly divided into eight major categories:


These are fast paced and may contain a large amount of violence due to this. Action games are usually inappropriate for children. Such games fall under the category “M” (mature-rated). Examples are Halo, Star Wars, Jedi Knight and Enter the Matrix.

Adventure and Role Playing

These are normally not as graphic as action games and can take the player into surrealism and fantasy. Though adventure and role-playing games often contain violence, it is not found to be as intense as the violence in action games. Examples of this category are Borderlands 2, Final Fantasy, Legend of Mana and Billy Hatcher.

First Person Shooters

As the name implies, it is a game in which the player sees the action through the eyes of the character he is representing and involves the use of pistols or rifles to kill the enemy. Due to the violence involved in this genre of games, they are not suitable for young children. Examples of these games are “Half-Life, “Half-Life 2”, “Call of Duty: Modern Warfare” and so on.

Construction and Management Simulation (CMS)

As the name suggests, in the games belonging to this genre, the players are expected to build, expand and manage imaginary projects and communities with very little resources. Examples of this genre include, “SimCity” and “Harvest Moon”.


Here the accent is on strategy rather than on violence and these games are slower which gives the player time for strategic thinking, resource management and planning to achieve victory. Most are warfare based and so violence is not completely absent. These games are not suitable for children. Some examples are Advanced Wars I & II, Civilization V and Crusader Kings II.


These are video or computer games that simulate real world situations under game settings. In this category, the three well-known games are Racing Simulators, Flight Simulators and Sims. There are lots of games in this class to entertain children. Some examples of simulation games are: Football Manager, Farming Simulator 2013, The Sims and Evil Genius.


The Platform Game or Platformer is consists of jumping between suspended platforms of varying heights or obstacles and sometimes both to move forward in the game. Some examples of Platformer are 40 Winks, Abuse, Action 52 and Adventure Island.


Puzzle video games are a class of games that require puzzle solving. The kinds of puzzles that need to be solved can involve many problem solving skills such as using logic, word completion sequence solving, strategy and pattern recognition. Some examples of Puzzle Video Games are Mario, Bejeweled 3, Cradle of Rome 2 and Hidden Objects.

While on the subject, let’s not forget Sports games such as NHL 13, and FIFA Soccer 13 and Arcade games such Chicken Shoot 1, Toy Story Mania and Angry Birds to name a few.

Nowadays, video games are enjoyed by a wide cross-section of our society, from toddlers to grandparents and these have been accepted by everyone as a good manner of entertainment and seen to be better than watching TV as it requires the viewer’s participation and interaction.

The general feeling is that video games do not provide any benefits to the player and especially so in the case of children.

Contrary to this belief, there are many benefits in allowing children to play certain types of games. Most important of these benefits is the development of:

· Cognitive thinking skills

· Fine motor skills

· Real-time decision-making abilities

· Hand-eye coordination

· Cooperative playing skills

Keeping video games out of the reach of children can only deprive them of these benefits.

A child’s imagination can be stimulated through role-playing and adventure games. Even if some of these games can seem tasteless due to its graphic nature and violence, they can play a positive and important role in a child’s development by promoting teamwork, building confidence and improving motor skills. Playing such video games will only provide a child with a healthy means of expression.

Certain video games are believed to teach children high level thinking skills which they would benefit from in the future.

Now that we have looked at the benefits for children, let’s look at what benefits video games hold for the rest of us.

Research into the pros and cons of video games are being conducted by various bodies including universities in some parts of the world and the result is that the pros outweigh the cons in respect of benefits.

When playing video games, you would need to react quickly and take split second decisions in order to succeed in the given task. It is believed that this kind of practice would provide benefits in real life where you would be able react with speed and take quick decisions.

Brain scientists have discovered that a certain driving video game, created by a research and development team at the University of California in San Francisco could improve the short-term memory and long-term focus of older adults.

It was found that immersion in a game distracts the mind from pain and discomfort. Due to this reason, some hospitals have started to suggest that children and others undergoing painful treatments play games to reduce their distress and anxiety.

Some video games have provided improvement in “Cognitive Flexibility”, which is the ability to switch quickly from one task to another.

Researchers from North Carolina State University found a link between playing video games and mental well-being among the elderly. They found that those citizens who played video games, even occasionally, experienced a state of well- being and happiness.

Gaming can also improve family relationships, as some of these games can and should be played together.

According to some studies conducted at the University of Rochester, people playing certain titles of video games have shown improvements in tests in the following areas:

• Multitasking

• Attention

• Accuracy

• Vision

The only thing a video game player or his or her family needs to ensure is that it does not become addictive in any way. A video game player shouldn’t end up spending hours on end playing games and losing track of time and place and while neglecting duties, personal chores and responsibilities.

Another thing that the parents of minors need to ensure is that their kids get access only to educational or similar games which are suitable for their age group and the good news is that there’s a huge selection of games available that are appropriate for all ages.

A video game content rating is a system is available in many countries and they are used to classify video games into suitability-related age groups with respect to its contents which, if followed, will help to limit the negative aspects of some of the games.

Finally, if video game players are able to play in moderation, and stick only to the categories of games suitable for their respective ages, they can derive a number of benefits as cited above.

These are some of the benefits of playing video games. If you want to have a more enjoyable playing experience, there are different websites that you can visit. One such website is, [] where you can find a wide variety of choices which include the latest video games, consoles and accessories offered in the gaming world today. Feel free to visit the website to know more.


What Should I Do to Be Good in The Business Letter?

What Should I Do to Be Good in The Business Letter?
Lettering to business readers is normally actually unlike writing in the philosophy, social arts, or other scholastic systems. Business writing attempts to be brief and concise instead
of suggestive or imaginative; it emphasizes precision and correctness. This difference does not make business lettering better or lower to other techniques. Instead, it reveals the sole objective and concerns associated when lettering in a business context.

When you write a company report, you must consider that your readers have restricted time to see it and is expected to examine it. Your recipients have attention in what you state since it influences their operation. They need to understand the “essence”: the case you are executing about a circumstance or difficulty and the way they should react.

Formal letter formats differ from the informal manner usually seen in email communications to the extra orderly, juridical characteristic observed in contracts. The attributes of these two limits are suitable for most memorandums, emails, and messages. Drafting that is too symmetrical can turn off recipients, and an effort to be excessively informal may find as dishonest or improper. In business correspondence, as in all reporting, you need to understand your readers.

A writer should constantly control the feature of the business letter. It is simple for an individual or an association to impress the others. The features of a business letter can be grouped as

• Internal Feature

• External Feature

Let us review each of them thoroughly.

I. Internal Feature

It suggests the feature of grammar applied and the demonstration of business correspondence.

  1. Transparent

The terminology written in the business letter must be transparent. It assists the recipient to comprehend the content instantly, easily, and unquestionably. Any uncertainty will induce a misunderstanding of the information stated.

  1. Plain

A writer must use plain and straightforward vocabulary in the business letter. One must avoid extravagant and complicated words.

  1. Brief

The content addressed in the letter must be brief and straightforward. Please take note that “brief” does not have to be “blunt”-you ought to study your expression and the readers for whom you are addressing.

  1. Concrete

The content of the letter must be concrete and precise. By applying concrete writing, a reader will have an unambiguous idea of the message. Nevertheless, your message should not appear like an extended list of quick, disjointed sentences.

  1. Precision

One must constantly monitor the precision of the business letter. Precision commonly signifies no mistake in grammar, terminology, punctuations, etc. The right organization should be aimed for discussion.

  1. Rational

The vocabulary and wording used in the business letter must be rational. The communication must be in a rational form for genuine comprehension of the content. The draft of the communication must be uniform.

  1. Comprehensive

One must compose a comprehensive letter. It assists the recipient to understand the subject and the resolution. It should give all the required data. One must also remember that the letter should be brief and plain and must include the entire aspects.

  1. Pertinence

The message should only carry significant information. Business correspondence should not include unnecessary details.

  1. Affable

The expression used in business correspondence must be affable. A writer must continually use a clear, respectful, and reliable language in his message. It does not imply that one must use slang and offensive terms. One must use the terms such as please, thank you, etc.

  1. Tidiness

A business letter must be deftly typewritten or written. The writer should use appropriate indention, spacing, and paragraphs.

  1. Pronouns

Personal pronouns (like I, we, and you) are essential in letters and memoranda. In such reports, it is ideal to address yourself as I and to the recipient as you.

  1. Passive vs Active Tone

The most skilled authors attempt to produce a form that is so plain so that no readers should misunderstand their messages. One approach to accomplish a plain style is to reduce your usage of the passive tone.

II. External Feature

The external feature of a business letter indicates the character of its external form. The external appearance of the letter must be appealing and convincing. Some of the extrinsic characteristics are

  1. Dimension of the Paper

The conventional dimension of the paper should be used. An A4 paper is a commonly accepted paper for composing business correspondence.

  1. Grade of the Paper

The grade of the paper used must be suitable. A company cannot always use expensive paper. One must use quality paper for the primary copy and average copy for the carbon copy.

  1. The Color of the Paper

Sometimes it is particularly beneficial to use the various colors of paper for different kinds of letters. The reader can comprehend the purpose and the meaning of the letters by its color.

  1. Method of Folding

One needs to fold the letter correctly and consistently. The method of folding should ensure the letter fit the envelope. One must not overfold the letter. It will create a negative perception of the recipient’s opinion.

  1. Quality of Envelope

One should always use a good quality envelope and ensure the size of the letter should fit the envelope.


4 Benefits of Watching Movies Online

4 Benefits of Watching Movies Online
Almost all of us love watching movies on TV or on the internet. However, one of the most popular ways to watch movies is to connect to the internet and check out websites that provide movies for free of charge. Social networking websites, such as YouTube has brought a revolution in this department. Now you can watch most of your favorite movies on YouTube. In this article, we are going to talk more about the benefits of watching your favorite titles online.

Accessibility to Tons of Movies

On the internet, you can browse tons of websites that offer you to download your favorite stuff for free of charge. The good news is that you can access hundreds of thousands of movies and watch them for free of charge. Plus, you can download them as well. This allows you to watch them on your mobile devices.

If you cannot find a title on these websites, you can check out some paid ones. They charge a monthly subscription fee and allow you to check out their huge collection of movie content.

Cost Affordable

If you watch movies on the internet, you can save tons of money. Conventionally, you have to buy a DVD of your desire titles, and each title will cost you additional money. If you are on a limited budget, this may not be an affordable option for you.

On the other hand, if you check out streaming websites, you will only have to pay a monthly or annual subscription fee. Once you have paid this fee, you will be free to watch all of the titles found on their website. So, if you are looking for an affordable option, you may want to check out these websites.

Quality of the Movie

If you’re looking for high-quality movies, you can check out YouTube and other streaming websites. The good thing is that you don’t have to download these movies as they can be found on streaming websites. Downloading a movie can take up a lot of hard drive space on your computer. And you may not have that much storage space.

Saves Time

You don’t need to download the movies to watch them. For example, you will have to wait for several hours for the movie to download on your computer. If you don’t want to kill that much time, we suggest that you watch them online. The movie will play as soon as you hit the play button. Apart from this, you can reverse or forward the movie as per your needs.

Apart from this, you can play a lot of titles to see which ones you like the most. Then you can skip the one that you don’t like and watch the rest.

The beauty of watching movies online is that you have the freedom to choose any title you like. There is no time or place limitation. Plus, you don’t have to spend any money as you won’t have to go to the cinema.

Long story short, these are just some of the benefits of watching your favorite films online.


3 Training Essentials for Health Care Providers

Health care providers are the backbone of our health care system. They are trained to promote good health, to care for and comfort the sick, and to work to improve the delivery of care. Although nursing and medicine are the two largest groups of health providers, there are many other types of health care providers. Other examples of health care givers include pharmacists, chiropractors, dentists, health managers, home care support workers, and practitioners of complementary and alternative medicine.

Due to the nature of their work, care providers face unique occupational risks including infections, needle injuries, back injuries, violence, and stress. Adhering to good job safety and injury prevention practices can help reduce these risks and other health problems. Different types of job-specific training are necessary depending on the role of the care provider, but all providers can benefit from these three types of essential training:

1. CPR: Also called Basic Life Support for Health Care Providers or CPR for Professional Rescuers, this is a comprehensive CPR course that covers CPR and removing airway obstructions for adults, infants, and children. This class also covers ventilation devices, barriers for performing rescue breathing, and two-person CPR techniques. Qualified Health care professionals should have this level of CPR training which also likely includes instruction on using an AED.
2. AED (automated external defibrillator): Technological advances have made new AED devices very simply to use. Normally they include voice instructions and diagrams that are simple enough for a child to use. However, formal AED training is important to ensure that care providers are familiar with the functionality and use of the device. AED training gives health care providers the confidence they need to quickly and properly use the device in an emergency.

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Watch Movies and Tv Series for Free

Watch Movies and Tv Series for Free
Are you tired of subscribing to too many online streaming services? Has your pocket lost its weight in recent times
just because you wanted to watch five different series altogether? If so, then you are in the right place.

Cmovies is here for you. Catering to people from all over the world offers a wide selection of movies and series. And that too, for free! It does not even compromise on picture and audio quality.

It is a one-stop destination for all the latest and top-rated movies and series. What else can one look for?

If you are still not convinced, then read below why it is time to shift to a platform like Cmovies.


Now, you do not have to wait forever for a movie or TV series to release in your country. It may take years for it to release. But do not worry. Cmovies is right here for you.

Cmovies has a collection of all the latest and fan-favorite movies and TV series from all around the world. Think of anything, and Cmovies will have it. If it is a Tom Cruise movie, an Italian movie, a French drama, or a Korean drama, you will find it.

No matter where you are from, you can enjoy art from everywhere. Art was not supposed to be confined by any boundary, especially not location. And Cmovies lets art be in its true form accessible to all.


Do you love the media of other countries but cannot understand anything they are saying? Well, Cmovies enables subtitles in the English language and the language it was dubbed in. And as a result, you can now watch a Korean drama or a Bollywood movie without missing the fun.

You will understand everything that is going on and enjoy the film and TV series you have been excited about.

Language should not classify as a barrier. And Cmovies makes sure that it is not one. You should get to enjoy films and series without having to worry about language.


As stated above, you can watch movies and series for free without any cost. So, you do not have to go through the trouble of subscribing to a hundred streaming platforms. There is only one destination for you now that does not ask for any money.

And that is Cmovies.


Cmovies offers HD picture quality and wonderful audio quality that gives a wholesome experience. Furthermore, it gives an option of different servers. The servers allow you to choose, especially if your country has certain restrictions.

Further, it has various options by way of which you can customize your binge-watching experience. Cmovies makes it possible for you to have an experience that is as close to the real experience in a theater.

Watch movies and TV series from anywhere in the world from any device. Binge-watching won’t cost you anything now. and cmovies offer an eclectic range of movies and TV series that you won’t find anywhere else. What are you waiting for?


What Are the Ways to Save Environment?

What Are the Ways to Save Environment?
Numerous Small measures Go the long way

Turn off electrical machines when not being used.

Fitting out machines from the attachments on the off chance that They are not prone to be utilized for 7- 8 hours. For instance TVs can be stopped out medium-term. This is a little signal, however in the event that a lot of individuals do it, it can really cause a detectable contrast.

Spare water. Incline toward basin showers over showers. Maintain a strategic distance from Bath tubs.Use taps on low stream. Turn them off while brushing or soaping up your hand while utilizing hand wash.

Maintain a strategic distance from plastic. Convey a fabric sack wherever conceivable. Huge amounts of Plastic pack are disposed of consistently and there are no approaches to reuse them. These at last heap up and get eaten by creatures or transmit harmful waste when covered in soil.

Walk little separations (<1 KM). Maintain a strategic distance from the utilization of vehicles in the event that you need to go to a close-by Supermarket or silver screen.

Quit Littering. Hailing from India, Littering has been a major issue. It is unclean and unhygienic. Numerous wellbeing risks and mischances are caused because of this.

Utilize the stairs. Stay away from Elevators. Lifts are utilized day in and day out and expend extensive vitality. By utilizing stairs you Save this vitality and furthermore get a decent measure of activity done.

Lessen your waste yield. This should be possible by just purchasing things that you truly require. This should likewise be possible by reusing certain things previously tossing them out. Give a minute and consider how a specific thing can be reused before discarding it.

Reuse. Attempt to reuse the greater part of your waste. Natural squanders like paper,fruit peels can be changed over into a fertilizer and be utilized as a part of the garden. Contact your closest reusing stop to handover plastic containers, aluminum jars, glass bottles.

Give talks in Neighborhoods about strides to enhance the earth. Cooperate and Instill the above routes in your territory.

At last everything descends to our attitude. On the off chance that you are extremely dedicated to sparing nature, at exactly that point will you have the capacity to change your way of life for it.

For instance, I had a companion who might leave the fan on in his apartment before clearing out. The fan would run regardless of whether he was out for quite a long time. This extremely disturbed me and I stood up to him about this. He just said that, he did it since it kept the room cool. On the off chance that he truly thought about the earth, he would have discovered an option, such as leaving the windows open.

So there are numerous individuals on the planet who need to change their attitude, so as to spare the earth. Changing your way of life as a grown-up is more troublesome than as a youngster. So these propensities ought to be ingrained into youngsters with the goal that they grow up to help the natural reason.

So go out there, Find that sister’s child, youthful cousin or the Neighbor’s tyke and show them about nature


Isn’t It Time To Restore All Our RIGHTS?

Isn’t It Time To Restore All Our RIGHTS?
One of the key components, of the United States Constitution, is the Bill of Rights, which were those basic things, our Founding Fathers, believed, were essential parts, and guarantees,
in the new nation! Without all these RIGHTS, as opposed, to what we often, witness, is selective applications, of, only those, which serve someone’s personal/ political agenda, and/ or, self – interest, how can we claim, to be the land of the free, etc? This nation fought England, in the Revolutionary War, and, then, less than a century later, battled, within, with this nation’s, Civil War, to create and stand – up, for certain principles, and ideals, but, especially, during the last few years, we have witnessed, many, who, Wrap Themselves in the Flag, when it’s convenient, and/ or, serves their purposes, but, proclaim, a far different message, when it doesn’t! For example, too often, we’ve seen some, who demand their so – called, 2nd Amendment Rights, while, simultaneously, denying 1st Amendment ones, which they don’t agree with! With that in mind, this article will attempt to, briefly, consider, examine, review, and discuss, using the mnemonic approach, what this means and represents, and why it matters.

  1. Right thing; reasons; relevant; realistic: Probably, most important, restoring and protecting all our rights, is the right thing, to do! All men are created equal, must be, more than words, etc! If, we fail to do so, in a realistic, relevant manner, and the public, doesn’t respect, the reasons, everyone, must be entitled to these, the nature of this nation, is threatened!
  2. Ideology; ideals; integrity; insights: How are we setting, the example, in terms of human rights, and freedoms, until/ unless, we protect this ideology, even when it might not be convenient, in this country? The nation’s leaders must articulate insights, and ideas, based on quality ideals, and maintain, absolute integrity, at all times!
  3. Generate goodwill; greater good: Wouldn’t it feel nice, if our public leaders, consistently, attempted, to generate goodwill, by focusing on the greater good, and putting quality policy, service, and representation, first?
  4. Humane; healing; head/ heart: Why would most people, feel comfortable, and proud, unless/ until, their leaders were, truly, humane, and prioritized, healing the wounds, and bringing us, together, for the common good? To do so, these individuals must balance their emotional, and logical components, in a head/ heart balance?
  5. Trust/ truthful; trends; together; timely; time – tested: We need truthful leaders, who earn our trust, by, consistently, bringing is, together! To achieve this requires aligning the appropriate current trends, and doing so, in a well – considered, timely manner, while proceeding, using time – tested, techniques, to be more effective, and efficient!
  6. Smart; service; solutions; stronger/ strengthen; sustainable; solutions: Smart leaders provide quality service. focused on providing sustainable solutions, which make the nation, stronger. When, our efforts, seek to strengthen, our nation, we all benefit, and so does, America’s freedoms!

Wake up, America, and demand, our leaders, make us stronger, and better, by restoring our commitment, to all the RIGHTS, and freedoms, our Constitution suggests! Will you stand – up, for these?

Richard has owned businesses, been a COO, CEO, Director of Development, consultant, professionally run events, consulted to thousands, conducted personal development seminars, and worked on political campaigns, for 4 decades. Rich has written three books and thousands of articles

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Why AI must try to model creativity

Why AI must try to model creativity
Creativity is a fundamental feature of human intelligence, and an inescapable challenge
for AI. Even technologically oriented AI cannot ignore it, for creative programs could be
very useful in the laboratory or the market-place. And AI-models intended (or considered)
as part of cognitive science can help psychologists to understand how it is possible for
human minds to be creative.
Creativity is not a special “faculty”, nor a psychological property confined to a tiny elite.
Rather, it is a feature of human intelligence in general. It is grounded in everyday capacities
such as the association of ideas, reminding, perception, analogical thinking, searching
a structured problem-space, and reflective self-criticism. It involves not only a cognitive
dimension (the generation of new ideas) but also motivation and emotion, and is closely
linked to cultural context and personality factors [3]. Current AI models of creativity focus
primarily on the cognitive dimension.
A creative idea is one which is novel, surprising, and valuable (interesting, useful,
beautiful. .). But “novel” has two importantly different senses here. The idea may be novel
with respect only to the mind of the individual (or AI-system) concerned or, so far as we
know, to the whole of previous history. The ability to produce novelties of the former kind
may be called P-creativity (P for psychological), the latter H-creativity (H for historical).
P-creativity is the more fundamental notion, of which H-creativity is a special case.
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HI: SOOO4-3702(98)00055- 1
348 A4.A. Buden /Artijicial Intelli~enc-e 103 (1998) 347-356
AI should concentrate primarily on P-creativity. If it manages to model this in a powerful
manner, then artificial H-creativity will occur in some cases-indeed, it already has, as we
shall see. (In what follows, I shall not use the letter-prefixes: usually, it is P-creativity which
is at issue.)

  1. Three types of creativity
    There are three main types of creativity, involving different ways of generating the novel
    ideas. Each of the three results in surprises, but only one (the third) can lead to the “shock’
    of surprise that greets an apparently impossible idea [2]. All types include some H-creative
    examples, but the creators celebrated in the history books are more often valued for their
    achievements in respect of the third type of creativity.
    The first type involves novel (improbable) combinations of familiar ideas. Let us
    call this “combinational” creativity. Examples include much poetic imagery, and also
    analogy-wherein the two newly associated ideas share some inherent conceptual
    structure. Analogies are sometimes explored and developed at some length, for purposes
    of rhetoric or problem-solving. But even the mere generation, or appreciation, of an apt
    analogy involves a (not necessarily conscious) judicious structural mapping, whereby the
    similarities of structure are not only noticed but are judged in terms of their strength and
    The second and third types are closely linked, and more similar to each other than
    either is to the first. They are “exploratory” and “transformational” creativity. The former
    involves the generation of novel ideas by the exploration of structured conceptual spaces.
    This often results in structures (“ideas”) that are not only novel, but unexpected. One can
    immediately see, however, that they satisfy the canons of the thinking-style concerned.
    The latter involves the transformation of some (one or more) dimension of the space,
    so that new structures can be generated which could not have arisen before. The more
    fundamental the dimension concerned, and the more powerful the transformation, the more
    surprising the new ideas will be. These two forms of creativity shade into one another, since
    exploration of the space can include minimal “tweaking” of fairly superficial constraints.
    The distinction between a tweak and a transform is to some extent a matter of judgement,
    but the more well-defined the space, the clearer this distinction can be.
    Many human beings-including (for example) most professional scientists, artists,
    and jazz-musicians-make a justly respected living out of exploratory creativity. That
    is, they inherit an accepted style of thinking from their culture, and then search it,
    and perhaps superficially tweak it, to explore its contents, boundaries, and potential.
    But human beings sometimes transform the accepted conceptual space, by altering or
    removing one (or more) of its dimensions, or by adding a new one. Such transformation
    enables ideas to be generated which (relative to that conceptual space) were previously
    The more fundamental the transformation, and/or the more fundamental the dimension
    that is transformed, the more different the newly-possible structures will be. The shock
    of amazement that attends such (previously impossible) ideas is much greater than the
    surprise occasioned by mere improbabilities, however unexpected they may be. If the
    M.A. &den /Artificial Intelligence 103 (1998) 347-356 349
    transformations are too extreme, the relation between the old and new spaces will not
    be immediately apparent. In such cases, the new structures will be unintelligible, and very
    likely rejected. Indeed, it may take some time for the relation between the two spaces to be
    recognized and generally accepted.
  2. Computer models of creativity
    Computer models of creativity include examples of all three types. As yet, those
    focussed on the second (exploratory) type are the most successful. That’s not to say
    that exploratory creativity is easy to reproduce. On the contrary, it typically requires
    considerable domain-expertise and analytic power to define the conceptual space in the first
    place, and to specify procedures that enable its potential to be explored. But combinational
    and transformational creativity are even more elusive.
    The reasons for this, in brief, are the difficulty of approaching the richness of human
    associative memory, and the difficulty of identifying our values and of expressing them in
    computational form. The former difficulty bedevils attempts to simulate combinational
    creativity. The latter difficulty attends efforts directed at any type of creativity, but is
    especially problematic with respect to the third (see Section 4, below).
    Combinational creativity is studied in AI by research on (for instance) jokes and analogy.
    Both of these require some sort of semantic network, or inter-linked knowledge-base, as
    their ground. Clearly, pulling random associations out of such a source is simple. But an
    association may not be telling, or appropriate in context. For all combinational tasks other
    than “free association”, the nature and structure of the associative linkage is important too.
    Ideally, every product of the combinational program should be at least minimally apt, and
    the originality of the various combinations should be assessable by the AI-system.
    A recent, and relatively successful, example of AI-generated (combinational) humour is
    Jape, a program for producing punning riddles [I]. Jape produces jokes based on nine
    general sentence-forms, such as: What do you get when you cross X with Y?; What
    kind of X has Y?; What kind of X can Y?; What’s the difference between an X and
    a Y? The semantic network used by the program incorporates knowledge of phonology,
    semantics, syntax, and spelling. Different combinations of these aspects of words are used.
    in distinctly structured ways, for generating each joke-type.
    Examples of riddles generated by Jape include: (Q) What kind of murderer has fibre?
    (A) A cereal killer; (Q) What do you call a strange market? (A) A bizarre bazaar; (Q) What
    do you call a depressed train? (A) A low-comotive; and (Q) What’s the difference between
    leaves and a car? (A) One you brush and rake, the other you rush and brake. These may
    not send us into paroxysms of laughter-although, in a relaxed social setting, one or two
    of them might. But they are all amusing enough to prompt wryly appreciative groans.
    Binsted did a systematic series of psychological tests, comparing people’s reception
    of Jape’s riddles with their response to human-originated jokes published in joke-books.
    She also compared Jape’s products with “non-jokes” generated by random combinations.
    She found, for instance, that children, by whom such humour is most appreciated, can
    distinguish reliably between jokes (including Jape’s riddles) and non-jokes. Although they
    generally find human-originated jokes funnier than Jape’s, this difference vanishes if Jape’s
    350 M.A. Boden /Art$cial Intelligence 103 (1998) 347-356
    output is pruned, SO as to omit the items generated by the least successful schemata. The
    riddles published in human joke-books are highly selected, for only those the author finds
    reasonably funny will appear in print.
    Binsted had set herself a challenging task: to ensure that every one of Jape’s jokes
    would be amusing. Her follow-up research showed that although none were regarded as
    exceptionally funny, very few produced no response at all. This contrasts with some other
    Al-models of creativity, such as AM [ 161, where a high proportion of the newly generated
    structures are not thought interesting by human beings.
    It does not follow that all Al-modelling of creativity should emulate Binsted’s ambition.
    This is especially true if the system is meant to be used interactively by human beings,
    to help their own creativity by prompting them to think about ideas that otherwise they
    might not have considered. Some “unsuccessful” products should in any case be allowed,
    as even human creators often produce second-rate, or even inappropriate, ideas. Jape’s
    success is due to the fact that its joke-templates and generative schemata are very limited.
    Binsted identifies a number of aspects of real-life riddles which are not parallelled in Jape,
    and whose (reliably funny) implementation is not possible in the foreseeable future. To
    incorporate these aspects so as to produce jokes that are reliably funny would raise thorny
    questions of evaluation (see Section 4).
    As for AI-models of analogy, most of these generate and evaluate analogies by using
    domain-genera1 mapping rules, applied to prestructured concepts (e.g. [7,12,13]). The
    creators of some of these models have compared them with the results of psychological
    experiments, claiming a significant amount of evidence in support of their domain-general
    approach [8]. In these models, there is a clear distinction between the representation of
    a concept and its mapping onto some other concept. The two concepts involved usually
    remain unchanged by the analogy.
    Some AI-models of analogy allow for a more flexible representation of concepts.
    One example is the Copycat program, a broadly connectionist system that looks for
    analogies between alphabetic letter-strings [ 11,181. Copycat’s concepts are contextsensitive descriptions of strings such as “mmpprr” and “klmmno”. The two m’s in the
    first string just listed will be described by Copycat as a pair, but those in the second string
    will be described as the end-points of two different triplets.
    One might rather say that Copycat will “eventually” describe them in these ways. For
    its concepts evolve as processing proceeds. This research is guided by the theoretical
    assumption that seeing a new analogy is much the same as perceiving something in a new
    way. So Copycat does not rely on ready-made, fixed, representations, but constructs its own
    in a context-sensitive way: new analogies and new perceptions develop together. A partbuilt description that seems to be mapping well onto the nascent analogy is maintained,
    and developed further. One that seems to be heading for a dead end is abandoned, and
    an alternative begun which exploits different aspects. The model allows a wide range
    of (more or less daring) analogies to be generated, and evaluated. The degree to which
    the analogies are obvious or far-fetched can be altered by means of one of the systemparameters.
    Whether the approach used in Copycat is preferable to the more usual forms of (domaingeneral) mapping is controversial. Hofstadter [ 1 l] criticizes other AI-models of analogy
    for assuming that concepts are unchanging and inflexible, and for guaranteeing that the
    M.A. Boden /Artificial Intelligence 103 (1998) 347-356 351
    required analogy (among others) will be found by focussing on small representations
    having the requisite conceptual structures and mapping rules built in. The opposing camp
    rebut these charges [8].
    They argue that to identify analogical thinking with high-level perception, as Hofstadter
    does, is to use a vague and misleading metaphor: analogical mapping, they insist, is
    a domain-general process which must be analytically distinguished from conceptual
    representation. They point out that the most detailed published account of Copycat
    [ 181 provides just such an analysis, describing the representation-building procedures as
    distinct from, though interacting with, the representation-comparing modules. They report
    that the Structure Mapping Engine (SME), for instance, can be successfully used on
    representations that are “very large” as compared with Copycat’s, some of which were
    built by other systems for independent purposes. They compare Copycat’s alphabetic
    microworld with the “blocks world” of 1970s scene analysis, which ignored most of
    the interesting complexity (and noise) in the real-world. Although their early models
    did not allow for changes in conceptual structure as a result of analogising, they refer
    to work on learning (using SME) involving processes of schema abstraction, inference
    projection, and re-representation [9]. Moreover (as remarked above), they claim that their
    psychological experiments support their approach to simulation. For example, they say
    there is evidence that memory access, in which one is reminded of an (absent) analog,
    depends on psychological processes, and kinds of similarity, significantly different from
    those involved in mapping between two analogs that are presented simultaneously.
    The jury remains out on this dispute. However, it may not be necessary to plump
    absolutely for either side. My hunch is that the Copycat approach is much closer
    to the fluid complexity of human thinking. But domain-general principles of analogy
    are probably important. And these are presumably enriched by many domain-specific
    processes. (Certainly, psychological studies of how human beings retrieve and interpret
    analogies are likely to be helpful.) In short, even combinational creativity is, or can be, a
    highly complex matter.
    The exploratory and transformational types of creativity can also be modelled by
    AI-systems. For conceptual spaces, and ways of exploring and modifying them, can be
    described by computational concepts.
    Occasionally. a “creative” program is said to apply to a wide range of domains, or
    conceptual spaces-as EURISKO. for instance, does [16]. But to make this generalist
    program useful in a particular area, such as genetic engineering or VLSI-design,
    considerable specialist knowledge has to be provided if it is not to generate hosts of
    nonsensical (as opposed to merely boring) ideas. In general, providing a program with
    a representation of an interesting conceptual space, and with appropriate exploratory
    processes, requires considerable domain-expertise on the part of the programmer-or
    at least on the part of someone with whom he cooperates. (Unfortunately, the highly
    subject-bounded institutional structure of most universities works against this sort of

E-Waste and the Importance of Electronics Recycling

E-Waste and the Importance of Electronics Recycling
With new cheap devices, society has reaped tremendous benefits. This explosive growth in the electronics industry, however, has led to a rapidly escalating issue of end-of-life (EOL) electronics or e-waste.
In landfills or primitive recycling operations, toxic materials can be released from old electronic devices into the environment.

E-waste is growing, and with that surge comes the need for effective electronics recycling programs. According to a January 2019 report from the World Economic Forum, E-waste is now the fastest-growing waste stream in the world, with an estimated waste stream of 48.5 million tonnes in 2018.

People still seek information on TV recycling, computer recycling, and other programs that will help them responsibly get rid of unwanted equipment ​while minimizing any risk of data or identity theft.

The safe recycling of electronics is receiving increased attention from policymakers, industry, and consumers alike. This trend is good news because many consumers are still not sure how to safely dispose of old computers, smartphones or other electronic devices. According to one report, nearly 75 percent of old electronics continues to be stored in households because of the unavailability of convenient recycling options.

This article looks at some of the basic questions, such as defining e-waste, exploring why it is important, how consumers can recycle, state legislation, and the issue of the international shipment of hazardous e-waste.

What Is E-Waste
These EOL electronic devices, also known as e-waste and e-scrap, includes such items as dated computer equipment, stereos, televisions, and mobile phones. Such things can often be refurbished or recycled, yet a significant amount still finds its way to the landfill. Soberingly, only 20% of global e-waste is formally recycled the remaining 80% often incinerated or dumped in landfills. “Many thousands of tonnes also find their way around the world to be pulled apart by hand or burned by the world’s poorest workers,” the World Economic Forum notes. “This crude form of urban mining has consequences for people’s wellbeing and creates untold pollution.” In the U.S., the recycling rate is closer to 25%, with much of the e-waste being shipped offshore.

Why Is Electronics Recycling Important?
Rich Source of Raw Materials Internationally, only 10-15 percent of the gold in e-waste is successfully recovered while the rest is lost. Ironically, electronic waste contains deposits of precious metal estimated to be between 40 and 50 times richer than ores mined from the earth, according to the United Nations.
Solid Waste Management Because the explosion of growth in the electronics industry, combined with short product life cycle has led to a rapid escalation in the generation of solid waste.
Toxic Materials Because old electronic devices contain toxic substances such as lead, mercury, cadmium and chromium, proper processing is essential to ensure that these materials are not released into the environment. They may also contain other heavy metals and potentially toxic chemical flame retardants.
International Movement of Hazardous Waste The uncontrolled movement of e-waste to countries where cheap labor and primitive approaches to recycling have resulted in health risks to residents exposed to the release of toxins continues to an issue of concern.
How Can Consumers Recycle Their Old Electronics Devices?
Consumers have access to recycling opportunities, depending on where they live. Thinking regarding the electronics recycling hierarchy, the best choice is to donate computer equipment that can be refurbished or reused as is, provided that personal information is scrubbed from devices. Other recycling opportunities include authorized electronics recycler locations, electronics recycling events, or retailer take back programs such as those offered by Staples, Office Depot or BestBuy. Additionally, other programs are available to help consumers with the recycling of cell phones and batteries, such as through Call2Recycle.

Are You Allowed to Throw E-Waste in the Trash?
Whether or not you are allowed to throw EOL electronic devices into the trash, may depend on equipment and location. Refer to specific state legislation, but please recycle. Note that some communities or cities will have policies that ban e-waste even if there is no such ban at the state level. Be sure to enlist the use of recyclers who are certified through either of the voluntary certification programs that have been established to ensure responsible recycling, including R2/RIOS and e-stewards.

E-Waste Recycling Legislation
In the United States, 26 states have mandated electronics recycling. Almost all of these policies require manufacturer responsibility to fund the recycling effort. California, by contrast, utilizes an advanced recycling fee (ARF) paid by consumers to support the recycling of old televisions, computer monitors, and DVD players. There is no federal law on electronics recycling.